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Women have unique oral health concerns. Changing hormone levels during your menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause can raise your risk of problems in your mouth, teeth, or gums. Health issues such as diabetes can also affect your oral health. Regular brushing, flossing, and dentist visits can help prevent disease in your mouth and the rest of your body.

Oral health is the health of your mouth, including your teeth, gums, throat, and the bones around the mouth.

Oral health problems, such as gum disease, might be a sign that you have other health problems. Gum diseases are infections caused by plaque, which is a sticky film of bacteria that forms on your teeth. If left untreated, the bacteria in plaque can destroy the tissue and bone around your teeth, leading to tooth loss. The bacteria can travel throughout your body and make you sick. Infections in your mouth can also affect your unborn baby if you are pregnant.

How often should I brush and floss my teeth?

Dentists recommend that everyone brush their teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and floss once a day.1 Flossing removes plaque between your teeth, a place that you can’t reach by brushing. You can also remove this plaque with tools other than floss. These tools, called interdental cleaners (link is external), include wooden or plastic picks and water flossers.

How often should I visit the dentist?

Most people should go to the dentist once or twice a year.

Your dentist may suggest that you come more often if you have a health problem such as diabetes or a weakened immune system. These health problems can make you more likely to develop gum disease or other dental diseases.

Women are also at higher risk of gum disease during pregnancy. And gum problems and bone loss may happen more quickly in women after menopause. Talk to your dentist about how often you should visit.

How do women’s hormones affect oral health?

Changing hormone levels at different stages of a woman’s life can affect oral health. When your hormone levels change, your gums can get swollen and irritated. Your gums may also bleed, especially during pregnancy, when your body’s immune system is more sensitive than usual. This can cause inflammation (redness, swelling, and sometimes pain) in the gums. Regular, careful brushing and flossing can lessen gum irritation and bleeding.

 

Other causes of changing hormone levels that may affect your oral health include; menstrual cycle, hormonal birth control and menopause.

How does my menstrual cycle affect oral health?

Hormone levels go up and down throughout your menstrual cycle. During ovulation and a few days before you start your period, higher levels of the hormone progesterone may cause swelling in your gums. Your gums may be red and bleed more than usual.

You may also get canker sores more often during your menstrual period. Canker sores are small ulcers that have a white or gray base and a red border. Canker sores are not the same thing as cold sores, which are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Canker sores are inside the mouth. Herpes cold sores are on the mouth and lips. You can’t pass canker sores to another person, but you can pass herpes cold sores to another person.

How does birth control affect oral health?

Pregnancy can make brushing difficult. Some women experience nausea from strongly flavored toothpastes. Switching to neutral-flavored toothpaste may help. During pregnancy, your hormone levels also go up and down. This raises your risk for several oral health problems:

Severe gum disease (periodontitis): Changing hormone levels during pregnancy can make gum disease worse or lead to severe gum disease in as many as 2 in 5 pregnant women. Periodontitis is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. It’s usually caused by not brushing and flossing, or brushing and flossing in a way that allows plaque — a sticky film of bacteria — to build up on the teeth and harden. Periodontitis can cause sore, bleeding gums, painful chewing, and tooth loss. Women who do not get regular dental care and women who smoke are more likely to have periodontitis.

Loose teeth: The tissue supporting your teeth may loosen during pregnancy since many of your joints and tissues loosen in preparation for childbirth. Taking good care of your mouth can help prevent tooth loss.

Wearing down of your tooth enamel: If you have morning sickness that causes vomiting, the stomach acid that comes up during vomiting can erode tooth enamel (the hard, protective coating on the outside of your teeth). Heartburn, another common pregnancy discomfort, can also wear down your tooth enamel over time if stomach acid is coming up into your throat and mouth. To prevent this erosion, the American Dental Association recommends rinsing your mouth with 1 teaspoon of baking soda mixed in a cup of water 30 minutes before brushing your teeth.

Culled from;

https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/oral-health

Shannon Lee Miller Falconetti, is an American former artistic gymnast and cancer survivor, whose survival story shows the beauty of focus and positive mindset. The seven-time Olympic medalist stated that lessons she learned while training for gymnastics competitions helped her endure the rigors of treatment for ovarian cancer. “A huge part of my success as an athlete was that I had the mental game. To get through the toughest moments of treatment I relied on goal setting and keeping that positive mentality.”

Shannon Miller was thirty-three (33) years old when she found out she had ovarian cancer. It was in the fall of 2010 and she had almost skipped her regular women’s health exam. She was a nursing mother to a year old Rocco and had recently founded her company, Shannon Miller Lifestyle: Health and Fitness for Women, and just felt too busy with life and work to go for a checkup. But just as she was calling to cancel the appointment, she had a change of heart.

“In her thought, she was working in the health field interviewing physicians for her weekly radio show talking about early detection, and she thought that she is not setting a good example by skipping her checkups.”  So she kept her appointment; a decision that helped her doctor to detect cancer at an early stage.

While conducting a routine pelvic checkup, her doctor found a baseball-sized mass on her ovary that turned out to be an ovarian germ cell tumor, a rare form of ovarian cancer. Shannon Miller later realized she had actually had signs of ovarian cancer; stomach aches, bloating, and weight loss. But because these are also often signs of much less serious problems, she did not think to report them to her doctor.

She had surgery to remove the tumor and then nine (9) weeks of aggressive chemotherapy to give her the best chance of keeping cancer from coming back. The cancer was at the second stage- it was caught before it had spread to other parts of her body.

Challenge of ever having children again

Before her surgery, her doctor did not know what he was going to find. He had an honest conversation with Miller and her husband about whether they wanted to be able to have another child someday. He asked them about how aggressive he should be about removing the mass and preserving her fertility. “We (the couple) knew the Doctor had to be as aggressive as possible. “We needed to do everything we could to make sure our son had a mom.”

But they also talked to the doctor about all their options. After the surgery which removed one ovary and one fallopian tube, they decided to save eggs before she started chemotherapy.

“I did not want to have any regrets. If you bring an umbrella, it will not rain – that was how she thought about it.”  “We decided we will take advantage of every opportunity available; then if we needed to have a plan B, we were prepared.”

A hard walk

Treatment was tough, both physically and emotionally. Miller’s doctor called it the “hit ‘them hard ‘and fast” approach. She would have chemotherapy five (5) days a week for nine (9) weeks, starting about a month after her surgery. She told herself, “I can do anything for nine (9) weeks.”

But by the end of the first week, she had such severe nausea and vomiting, she was unable to keep even water down and was forced to check into the hospital to receive IV fluids. By week two, Miller’s hair fell out and she experienced severe fatigue and neuropathy, a nerve pain, in her hands.

 

 “Her next true moment was with herself and God in that room thinking, ‘How do I do this?’” according to her. “She kept coming back to the realization that she does not have to do this alone. She had faith, and she had her team around her. She reminded herself that she was not the only one going through this.”

Shannon Miller finished her chemo on May 2, 2011. “She thought she was going to have all her energy back, and that her hair would grow back. She expected to feel better,” stated Miller. “But the neuropathy her my hands was so bad, she could not open a bottle of water. She felt like each limb weighed a thousand pounds and she could barely move herself to get out of bed. When she was in Olympic training 7 days a week, she never felt this kind of fatigue.”

She got help from another cancer survivor, her mother, who helped her understand she would feel better – but it would take time.

Shannon is a survivor

She uses whatever voice she had from her Olympic career to encourage women to keep medical appointments, get more sleep, eat right, get and stay fit, and recognize the signs and symptoms of cancer.

Shannon Miller stated that it took about a year before she felt like herself again. She was still extra tired and taking naps right up until the 2012 Summer Olympics in London where she covered gymnastics for the media. Shortly after she returned home from London, she found out she was pregnant with her daughter Sterling who is now three (3) years old.

Today, Miller travels the country telling her cancer story and encouraging women to take care of themselves, “I use whatever voice I have from my Olympic career to encourage women to keep medical appointments, get more sleep, eat right, get and stay fit, and recognize the signs and symptoms of cancer.”

In June 2014, in honor of National Cancer Survivors Day, Shannon Miller spoke at a cancer survivors’ reunion sponsored by the American Cancer Society and Extended Stay America hotels, which donates hotel reservations to cancer patients whose best option for cancer treatment is away from home. “Extended Stay America does so much for those going through a cancer diagnosis. There is so much involved beyond treatment for patients and caregivers.”  She stated that she enjoys the opportunity to speak to survivors. We are all at a different place in our journey, but we can learn something from every story. Learning more and being around other survivors or reading about them is important because it gives you hope. The more we can do to create awareness the better, so we are catching cancer earlier when there are more options for treatment.”

According to her, “The biggest lesson she learned was how much she needed to appreciate every day.”  “No matter where you are in your journey, you can take that day and do your best with it. She used to fly through life. She did not take time to savor it. She was always a go, go, goes, person. Now she understands the importance of really taking time to appreciate every moment.”

Women can beat this deadly disease by taking note of lifestyles or habits that trigger cancer. Health experts always stress the point that one should live healthily by simply doing the basics of healthy living which will go a long way in avoiding cancer.

By Charles Emekpo

An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your body.

The immune system normally guards against germs like bacteria and viruses. When it senses these foreign invaders, it sends out an army of fighter cells to attack them. Normally, the immune system can tell the difference between foreign cells and your own cells. In an autoimmune disease, the immune system mistakes part of your body — like your joints or skin — as foreign. It releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells. Some autoimmune diseases target only one organ. Type 1 diabetes damages the pancreas. Other diseases, like lupus, affect the whole body.

According to experts in the medical field, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a disorder characterized by muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy). This condition gets its name from the muscles that are affected most often: those of the face (facio-), around the shoulder blades (scapulo-), and in the upper arms (humeral). The signs and symptoms of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy usually appear in adolescence.

 

Living with this disease just like with many other terminal diseases comes with huge challenges. In this article, we will be reading about a 34 year-old lady who suffers from this terrible disease together her mother and elder sister. Here is her story:

 

My name is Daniela Chiriac. I am 34 years old, and a member of a family of three, including my mother and my elder sister. All of us are suffering from progressive muscular dystrophy. I was diagnosed with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy in 2010, after a bad episode at work.

 

Unfortunately, none of us escaped this irreversible illness, but we must go forward and fight until the end. The saddest part of my story is that I was the one who has been taking care of my mother and my sister since I was 14 years old when my father passed away, but now I am unable to look after my family and after myself properly as I did for the past 16 years.

 

I am very much aware that this illness has no cure, but I have struggled to provide a treatment which includes many supplements, both natural and synthetic, which have helped fight the illness by slowing the progression. Fifteen years ago, every doctor told me that my sister and my mother would not live more than five more years, but here we are! My mother is 67 and my sister 47 years old at this time (2014).

 

Over the years, I have approached all the foundations/associations that I could find in Romania which fight against muscular dystrophy of any type. Unfortunately, they did not have the funds to help us. Nevertheless, I kept fighting on my own to provide my mother and my elder sister (who is also like a mother to me), a comfortable life and I tried my best to minimise the emotional and financial discomfort, as long as I was able to work.

 

Complications

 

As a consequence of muscular dystrophy and also non-insulin dependent diabetes, my mother has developed many complications, including:

 

  • Muscular atrophy in legs, arms, and muscles of upper and lower back
  • Difficulties swallowing food and periodontitis
  • Weakening abdominal muscles
  • Weak articulations
  • Loss of balance
  • Hepatic steatosis
  • Hypertension
  • Ischaemic heart disease
  • Diabetic neuropathy (also as a side-effect of diabetes)
  • Diabetic wounds
  • Major depression
  • Severe pain (the result of nonresponsive muscles, neuropathy, damage to the bone articulations and internal organ atrophy)

 

 

 

My sister struggles with the following:

 

  • Losing muscle strength and function
  • Affected joints
  • Respiratory difficulties
  • Cardiac muscle affected
  • Liver disorders
  • Pain and muscles cramps

    She also wears knee orthosis to combat knee extension damage and help her walk

    

 

I have been encountering more of these medical problems myself since 2010, but age is still on my side and I still have the strength to look after myself, to help my mother with her hygiene needs every day, to take care of her wounds, to stay in touch with the family doctor, to bathe my sister and to help her to go out for short walks. I was forced by the situation I am going through to accept medication for depression.

 

Living with a rare disease in Romania

 

Medical treatments for the heart condition, hypertension, diabetes, some medication for stomach disorders, and the treatment for depression I mentioned are covered under legislation for the rights of disabled individuals, meaning by the social security system in Romania. No specific treatment for muscular dystrophy exists or is covered by Romanian legislation based on the fact that there is no cure anywhere for muscular dystrophy. In Romania, muscular dystrophy is considered a kind of “luxury illness” with which you can live “in peace,” waiting for it to put you down sooner or later. There is no association/foundation fighting against muscular dystrophy in Romania with help from the state to achieve their goals (at least according to the information I have). Associations are supported by the authorities in Romania if they are accredited and provide services (based on a call for proposals according to the priorities of the Ministry of Work). In Romania, there are two organisations for muscular dystrophy. The situation is the same for other rare diseases where there is no treatment approved.

 

There are some treatments, taken with the common agreement of the doctors following my family’s case, which gave me hope for a better life and improved the medical condition for my mother and my sister over the years. These include coenzyme Q 10 100mg; vitamin E 100mg; glutathione 500mg; Octapower; diabetes supplements; multivitamins and minerals; omegas 3 & 6; vitamin C 1000mg; calcium 500mg; magnesium; bee pollen; and the pain reliever Uteplex (made only in France) which has been very helpful in alleviating the pain. My mother also needs glucose strips but as she is not insulin dependent these are not covered by the social security insurance. Also, all the special bandages and ointments and creams needed for the diabetic wounds that my mother often develops are paid for with our own income.

 

Our income, for all three of us, is approximately 250 Euro per month, with which we must cover everything, including treatments/supplements/glucose strips, as well as bills and monthly costs for the apartment, consumption (water, gas, electricity, et cetera).

 

I need real help to continue my fight because my strength is very low at this time in my life. I feel that my hands and feet are tied and I can’t make any real movements anymore. This is the reason for which I decided to tell my story because I am powerless.

 

 

 

Source: EURORDIS

By: Eruke Ojuederie

While world women advocate for equal rights for women and the fight against gender violence across regions, a vital part of this discourse has failed to be addressed. Though part of the umbrella name gender violence, acid attacks have remained rampant most especially in developing nations with little or no measures put in place to curb this human atrocity. Of what use will the fight against gender violence be if it does not protect those prone to attacks for speaking their minds on issues of the heart?

Acid attacks are violent assaults aimed at destroying some portions of the victims’ body. In most cases, this comes as a result of a disagreement or as is the case with most women, is the punishment for rejection and turned-down advances – usually sexual. Those who suffer from this attack face a risk of blindness, permanent scars, and sometimes death depending on the degree of the burn. Women with such experiences find it had to face the world because they are grouped among the disadvantaged.

According to the Acid Survivors Foundation India (ASFI), the majority of acid attack victims are women, and victims are attacked over domestic or land disputes, a rejected marriage proposal or spurned sexual advances.

Statistics show a clear increase in the number of acid attacks in the South Asian country in recent years. At least 106 such attacks were reported in 2012, according to the Acid Survivors Foundation India (ASFI). And that figure rose to 122 in 2013 and 349 in 2014. Activists say that figure climbed to over 500 in 2015.

According to a 2011 report published by the Cornell Law School – Bangladesh, India, and Cambodia have the highest incidences of acid attacks in the world. Reports have it that unlike many other chemical susbstances, acid is easily accessible in these places, and can go for as low as Rs 30 over the counter. Experts have identified this as one of the factors that account for the rising rates of acid attacks in developing countries. A handful of these experts have advocated for a ban on the sale of this harmful product in departmental stores or some form of restriction but given its industrial importance, a ban may not come just yet.

Recently, the tale of Madhu Kashyap an acid attack survivor made the rounds. It showed the strength and unwavery determination she had towards fulfilling her dreams despite her predicament. Just for refusing marriage her face was disfigured at the age of 17. Presently, she manages a café called Sheroes at Agra run by Chhanv Foundation. The café serves as solace for women in the neigbourhood who have suffered from acid attacks as they make up the workforce.

Acid attack victims go through physical, emotional, and psychological challenges from the actual pain attached to the burning sensation felt at the moment of the attack, to the pains which accompany surgery; removing skin from other parts of the body to cover up that which was lost, and becoming the one person people never want to relate with merely because they cannot stand the sight of squeezed skin. This is not to forget the dead threats to family and friends who feel the need to bring the attackers to book. It doesn’t come as a surprise that a good number of acid attack victims make death wishes as they feel this is a better option than the feeling of isolation and dejection which comes as a result of their predicament.

Despite living in a world that has these women scarred emotionally and physically, it is amazing how female acid victims have found themselves again; drawing hope from the minutest things in their immediate environment even as they seek to leave normal lives, engage in regular jobs and activities, and most of all impacting on the lives of not only their kind but other young women who have lost hope after other terrible circumstances.

For Madhu Kashyap, once she got over her fears of public reaction, she got married and began to search for her dream job. Madhu says:“Today, if my attacker confronts me, I will tell him that what he did was to weaken me; but rather than becoming weak I have become stronger and living my life.” She is passionate about design and thinks that joining Vikas Malani’s Body Canvas workshop will help her to follow her passion. Body Canvas is a chain of tattoo studios collaborating with Chhanv by conducting free workshops for the victims.

It is commendable to note that in India acid attack survivors are now given rights under the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016. Following a writ petition by survivor Laxmi Agarwal in 2006, the Supreme Court in July 2013,  passed orders that led to the regulation of sale of acid, compensation for the victims, after care and rehabilitation of the survivors; limited compensation from the government, reservation in educational institutions and easier access to jobs – laws that would have remained rigid for another decade if not for the tenacity of survivors such as Laxmi.

Laxmi was attacked in Delhi’s Khan Market in 2005 by her acquaintances, Guddu and Rakhi. Laxmi was 15 at that time and the act was seen as revenge for Laxmi’s refusal to marry Guddu, her friend’s brother.

 

In 2009, Laxmi took up the challenge to walk outside without covering her face. “This was the biggest challenge, people’s reactions were bad and alienating,” she remembers. While Laxmi’s parents supported her throughout, her friends and relatives cut all communication. Laxmi decided to take the case to court, and the trial went on for four years. While Guddu was sentenced to 10 years in jail, Rakhi was imprisoned for seven years.

In 2013, Laxmi became associated with the acid attack movement; one month after Alok Dixit and Ashish Shukla started the ‘Stop Acid Attacks’ campaign, which culminated in the Chhanv foundation in 2014. They campaigned aggressively and started a discussion around acid violence in the country. Today, Laxmi is the director of the foundation and Alok Dixit is the campaign head.

Also, while women like Laxmi fight for the rights of victims of acid attacks, modern beauty and healthcare therapists uncover new ways to make these women confident again with beauty surgeries. This has helped to give a renewed hope to acid attack victims as they look forward to moving past their grieve and starting up a new life full of zeal.

This brings forth a new lesson for women across regions- one of hope that inspires us to do that which the world thinks is far from us, shattering man-made barriers, and stepping into that feminine glow which every woman is called to embrace.

By: John Naish
Sharyn Mackay and John Pattison belong to an extraordinary club – people told they have terminal cancer only for their tumours to disappear inexplicably, to the astonishment of patient and doctor alike.

It’s tempting to see these stories as medical miracles. But drug companies are hard on the trail of a more rational answer – that the tumours were ‘killed off’ by the patient’s own immune system – and are developing new therapies to harness this power.

Sharyn knew there was something wrong when she began suffering pain in the right side of her stomach in April 2003. She was diagnosed with a cancerous tumour on her kidney, which proved so rare that the doctors at Craigavon Area Hospital in Northern Ireland sent samples of it for examination by specialists in London, Glasgow, and Harvard.

Sharyn Mackay with husband William and daughter Olivia.

 

‘I wasn’t going to let her grow up without a mummy,’ she says

‘They said it was spindle cell sarcoma, which is normally a bone cancer. I was one of only ten known cases where it had become a kidney tumour,’ says Sharyn, a 46-year-old mother of four from Newcastle, Co. Down. ‘The surgeon kept a watch on my kidney. But in April 2004, he told me the cancer had rattled through my kidneys and lungs and I was a terminal case.’

The cancer was inoperable and chemotherapy, even if it worked, would add only a few weeks to Sharyn’s life. ‘The hospital said the treatment was an option, but not a cure, and that I had a year to live, at best.’

Sharyn and her family were devastated. But she felt determined to beat the diagnosis and started to pray. Three months later, something astounding occurred.

‘Further scans to see how the cancer was progressing showed the cancer was gone. The doctors were astonished, and said it could not have been due to anything they’d done.’

Sharyn is convinced that what happened was a miracle. ‘When the doctors said my cancer was terminal, I put my faith into practice and attended a Christian healing ministry.’

Rather than try health regimes such as special diets, she says: ‘The situation was out of my hands and I just believed in the power of prayer. I was absolutely terrified.

‘But I was also convinced that this was not my time. I told my husband, William, I wasn’t going to let my youngest girl, Olivia, who was then eight, grow up without a mummy.

‘Four radiographers studied the scans and none of them could quite believe it. The tumours had gone and I was told to leave the hospital and live a full life. The cancer has never come back and I have never felt better.’

Source: Daily Mail

Sometimes a heart attack is not just a heart attack, but the result of spontaneous tearing in the coronary artery wall.

 

The artery wall has three layers and when a tear occurs, blood is able to pass through the innermost layer and become trapped and bulge inward. This narrows or blocks the artery and can cause a heart attack because blood flow cannot reach the heart muscle.

 

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon occurrence, but because it occurs spontaneously, it’s important to recognize the symptoms and get treatment immediately.

Dr. Naesha Parks began her journey with SCAD in 2008, just ten days after giving birth to her son. Her doctors discovered that she had a coronary artery dissection which required open heart surgery. Here’s her amazing story:

 

“If you have a young patient who doesn’t show atherosclerosis in the arteries and has symptoms of a heart attack, then you need to look for SCAD,” said Kathy E. Magliato, a cardiothoracic surgeon and director of Women’s Cardiac Services at St. John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif., and author of “Heart Matters.”

 

Researchers aren’t sure what causes SCAD, but patients are often women who are otherwise healthy, with few or no risk factors for heart disease.  Some studies have pointed to a hormonal link, showing a greater incidence among post-partum women and women who are experiencing or close to a menstrual cycle.

 

“Thirty percent of all SCAD patients have recently had a child,” said Dr. Magliato, who is also president of the Greater Los Angeles American Heart Association. “When we see it in men, it’s after extreme exertion, such as isometric exercises.”

 

Recent studies have also shown many SCAD patients also have fibromuscular dysplasia, a condition that causes abnormal cell growth in the arteries that can cause narrowing, beading or tearing in the artery walls, or an aneurysm.

 

SCAD is difficult to diagnose before it causes a heart attack because it doesn’t have any warning signs. And although it can cause a life-threatening heart attack, SCAD patients don’t typically have other heart disease risk factors.

 

That’s why recognizing the symptoms of a heart attack is so crucial for SCAD patients.  Warning signs may include chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, profuse sweating and dizziness.

 

“Around 80 percent of the time, we see this disease in fairly young, healthy and active patients,” Dr. Magliato said. “Seek immediate treatment if you think you’re having a heart attack. ”

 

Treatment for SCAD patients differs from other heart attack patients, who may require a procedure to insert a stent to hold the artery open or bypass surgery. For SCAD patients, more conservative therapy that emphasizes blood pressure control and medication can have better results, Dr. Magliato said.

 

“When you put a stent in a SCAD patient, there’s a higher risk of complications and a lower success rate,” Dr. Magliato said.

 

Doctors may be able to recognize the signs of SCAD using an angiogram, but an intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography screening, which allows doctors to see the artery from the inside out, is needed to make a definitive diagnosis, Dr. Magliato said.

 

SCAD patients have a high risk of recurrence and should let their doctor know about any changes to their health. They should also make sure they are reducing any other risks they may have for heart diseases, such as high blood pressure, smoking or high cholesterol.

 

“The bottom line is that any type of chest pain is abnormal,” Dr. Magliato said. “If you’re a young healthy woman and you have chest pain, you need to get medical attention.”

 

Source: www.heart.org

Image: Mayo Clinic