The delicate nature of women has made then prone to several diseases one of which is ovarian cyst. There is a high tendency that at the initial stages, this disease may be ignored since there are no symptoms, however, the agonizing pain will end up forcing patient of this disease to the hospital beds.
Usually ovarian cysts do not produce symptoms, and are found during a routine physical exam. They also may be seen as an incidental finding on an ultrasound performed for other reasons. However, symptoms can be present, especially with large cysts or ruptured cysts. These are variable and may include:
Pain with sexual intercourse, especially with deep penetration; Lower abdominal or pelvic pain (This may be intermittent, or can be severe, sudden, and sharp); Irregular menstrual periods; A feeling of lower abdominal or pelvic pressure or fullness; Chronic pelvic pain or low back pain throughout the menstrual cycle; Pelvic pain following exercise or vigorous activity; Pain or pressure with urination or bowel movement; Nausea and vomiting; Vaginal pain or spotty bleeding from the vagina; Infertility; Abdominal tenderness; Heartburn; Indigestion; Problems with the control of urination, among others.
Ovarian cysts are fairly common. They are fluid-filled sacs that form in or on a woman’s ovaries. Symptoms of ovarian cysts depend to a large extent on the size of the cyst. Many ovarian cysts produce no symptoms. Large or ruptured ovarian cysts can cause symptoms including pain, pelvic pressure or discomfort.
Vaginal (pelvic) ultrasound can be used to reveal the presence of ovarian cysts.
Ovarian cysts can vary in size. Many are very small, while cysts associated with ovarian tumors may be 12 inches or more in diameter.
In some cases ovarian cysts can cause problems with menstrual periods such as abnormal or irregular bleeding. Spotting (light bleeding) from the vagina can also occur due to some ovarian cysts.
Very rarely, cysts on the ovaries are part of ovarian cancers. Benign functional ovarian cysts do not cause cancer, and the vast majority of ovarian cysts are benign.
Some types of ovarian cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome and cysts related to endometriosis) may make it more difficult for a woman to get pregnant.
Simple ovarian cysts (functional cysts) can sometimes be seen during pregnancy. Dermoid cysts and other types of cysts can also occur in pregnant women.
The sudden onset of severe pain is the characteristic symptom of a ruptured (burst) ovarian cyst.
Treatment of ruptured ovarian cysts involves medications for pain control. Ruptured dermoid cysts may require surgery due to irritation of the internal organs from the contents of the cyst.
Larger cysts may require surgery to remove the cyst or a biopsy to rule out cancer.
The following are risk factors for developing ovarian cysts:
History of previous ovarian cysts
Irregular menstrual cycles
Early menstruation (11 years or younger)
Infertility treatment with gonadotropin medications
Tamoxifen (Soltamox) therapy for breast cancer.